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No 39
Vol. 39 No. 13
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Since its formation, technician training has paved different ways and we witness several changes in its delivery systems during past decade. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, such kinds of training have faced with several changes and have been through different streams according to chronological order such as technical and vocational schools, technological institutes and technical and vocational colleges. The main objective of such kind of institutions was to train first-grade quadratic technicians to fill the gap between engineers and skill workers, according to the requirements of job market with the supply-oriented approach in each section. In this article, we tried to take a look at transformations of technical and vocational technician training and its widespread aspects in the Islamic Republic of Iran based on chronological order in two captions period of time -before and after Islamic revolution-. It is an opportunity for the policy maker, directors and curriculum developers to look forward according to past experiences of gained from this study and also they can take a look the obstacles that technical and vocational training suffered from during past decades. Also they can build the future with the background that what has happened to technical and vocational education in the past and also they will be more familiar with unknown aspects of planning for the future.
Abbas Sadri - Shahnaz Jabal Ameli
Keywords : Associate degree ، Industries ، , Technical and vocational education ، Technician
In the current situation of Iran's economy that is encountered to high unemployment; slow economic activity in sectors such as industry and limited rate of investment in the agricultural sector, paying attention to rural development is vital. In this process, rural entrepreneurs without relying on the government and in the private sector, create jobs using inactive resources. Through the development of appropriate skills training to villagers, villages would discover new opportunities as a result of the operation to remove bottlenecks rural community leads. In this paper, for the purpose of identification and analysis capabilities of graduates of rural entrepreneurship in rural development, factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship villagers were investigated and, the obstacles and strategies for the development of entrepreneurship were recognized.
Mohammad Shojaaddini - mehrnaz Baniamam - Masoud Shafiee
Keywords : employment ، , rural development ، development strategies, ، entrepreneurship ، obstacles
To evaluate the effect of cutting type (or the place cuttings were taken from) on rooting of cuttings of ornamental magnolia (Magnolia soulangeana) current experiment was taken place in early July 2013 in a greenhouse at the Gorgan university of agricultural sciences and natural resources. In the current study mother plants were selected within the university campus (called Pardis area) and taken cuttings were divided into four categories including: terminal-current season, none terminal-current season, annual and heel cuttings. Cuttings were then treated with concentration of 4000 mg/l of IBA and then placed in the substrate medium immediately. An RCBD design with 4 replications was used for statistical evaluation of the achieved data. Significance of the data was considered at 1% level of examined characteristics. Results showed that highest rooting score (%90.01) was seen with heel cuttings, however there was no significant difference between the mentioned treatment and current season cuttings. Maximum root length also was seen with heel cuttings which again there was no significant difference with current season cuttings. The highest fresh weight and root dry weight was observed with heel cuttings. From the point of view of the percent of survived plantlets after transplanting to pot, there were no significant differences among four types of cuttings.
Hossein Zarei - Mehdi Alizadeh - Zahra Golshadi Ghalehshahi
Keywords : Cutting ، Indole butric acid ، Purple Magnolia & ، Rooting
Until century 18 ornamentals and indoor plants did not have real concept for people and only some people in court of kings were growing plants for decorating environment. Flowers with large variety play main role in obviate mental and esthetic requirements of human. In addition esthetic aspects, remove of air pollution and mental health of society, economic aspect of flower growing and postharvest handling are important and cause decrease of losing cut flowers, so increase per capita and improve culture of flower use. In this study, Pakdasht buyer's information about cut flowers postharvest physiology and cut flowers maintenance, and yardstick of flowers selection considered. Sixty buyers were selected randomly from six florists in Pakdasht. The results show that 60% of buyers buy cut flower in special days like birthday, wedding and celebrations and 35% of people buy flower based on their interest. 38.3% of people put cut flowers in tap water after buying. For increasing vase life, 11.7% add bleaching liquid and 16.7 add sugars to tap water. These results show that buyers have not enough information about cut flowers postharvest. Yardstick of cut flower selection, unexpectedly 41.7% selected cut flowers based on appearance shape of cut flowers and only 16.7% selected cut flowers regard cost that there was statistically significant different between them.
Atoosa Danyaei - Mehrdad Babarabie
Keywords : Consumer ، Vase life ، Yardstick flower buying ،
Today, with the introduction of sustainable agriculture, not only it is desirable to produce agricultural products, but it will also help to reduce input and to minimize adverse effects on the environment. Sustainable agriculture is generally compatible with the environment and the people’s interest in a more efficient use of existing resources. With sustainable agriculture, precision farming has also been considered a big help and more stringent environmental protection with efficient use of inputs that will result in higher quality products. Most environmental damage is a result of using chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases. Precision agriculture, along with effective structures, can be useful for reducing pollution and lowering losses due to plant diseases all without the use of chemical pesticides, or at least a minimal use of them. This study is intended to introduce some of the structures necessary for precision agriculture.
Farzaneh Lak - Peyman Kermani
Keywords : Precision agriculture ، , Production inputs ، the control of plant diseases

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